India – Climate

  • Weather is the temporary state of the atmosphere, while climate refers to the average of the weather conditions over a longer period of time.
  • Weather changes quickly, may be within a day or week, but climate changes in imperceptive and may be noted after 50, 100 years, or even more.
  • The climate of India has distinct regional variations discernible by the pattern of winds, temperature, and rainfall; further, also in the form of rhythm of seasons and the degree of wetness or dryness.

    Factors Influencing Climate

    • Major factors that determine the climate of India are −
      • Latitude
      • The Himalayan Mountains
      • Distribution of land and water
      • Distance from the sea
      • Altitude
      • Relief


  • Winter, occurring from October to February. The year’s coldest months are December and January, when temperatures average around 10–15 °C (50–59 °F) in the northwest; temperatures rise as one proceeds towards the equator, peaking around 20–25 °C (68–77 °F) in mainland India’s southeast.
  • Summer or pre-monsoon season, lasting from April to June (April to July in northwestern India). In western and southern regions, the hottest month is April; for northern regions of India, May is the hottest month. Temperatures average around 32–40 °C (90–104 °F) in most of the interior.
  • Monsoon or rainy season, lasting from July to September. The season is dominated by the humid southwest summer monsoon, which slowly sweeps across the country beginning in late May or early June. Monsoon rains begin to recede from North India at the beginning of October. South India typically receives more rainfall.
  • Post-monsoon or autumn season, lasting from October to November. In the northwest of India, October and November are usually cloudless. Tamil Nadu receives most of its annual precipitation in the northeast monsoon season.




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